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Impact resistant hierarchically structured materials based on fruit walls and nut shells

Member of the SPP1420 from 2009 till 2015

Abstract

The fruit walls of nuts and drupes are of special interest for the development of impact and puncture resistant structures. We identified at least seven hierarchical levels within the fruit walls of our biological role models, pomelo, macadamia nut and coconut. We assume that the interaction of microstructural features on different length-scales serves to dissipate large amounts of energy during impact, to increase the fracture toughness or to realize a combination of both properties. We focus on the analysis of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the biological role models on the different hierarchical levels, aiming at the identification of those features or levels that are most important for the mechanical behaviour. Based on this knowledge we create biomimetic metal foams. If possible from a scientific point of view, similar methods are used and the same conditions are applied for microstructural and mechanical investigations of the metal foams and the biological role models. To introduce the hierarchical structure into the metal foams, the production process has to be adapted and optimized. As the technical foams can be modified by adding or subtracting hierarchical levels - which of course is not possible for the biological counterparts - we are able to investigate different combinations of the identified structural features in a very defined way. This again yields an improved understanding of the structure-property-relationship of the biological models (reverse biomimetics).

 

Publications

Peer-Reviewed Publications


Proceedings and Book Chapters

  • Masselter, T., Barthlott, W., Bauer, G., Bertling, J., Ditsche-Kuru, P., Gallenmüller, F., Gude, M., Hermann, M., Immink, H., Knippers, J., Lienhard, J., Luchsinger, R., Lunz, K., Mattheck, C., Milwich, M., Mölders, N., Neinhuis, C., Nellesen, A., Rechberger, M., Schleicher, S., Schmitt, C., Schwager, H., Seidel, R., Speck, O., Stegmaier, T., Tesari, I., Thielen, M. & Speck, T. (2011): Biomimetic products. In: Y. Bar-Cohen (ed.), Biomimetics: Naturebased Innovation, CRC Press / Taylor & Francis Group. (in press)
  • Speck,T., Speck, O., Masselter, M. & Seidel, R. (2011): Verpacken, Auspacken und Schützen nach dem Vorbild der Natur: Was man von der Biologie für technisches Verpacken lernen kann. In: Spritzgießen 2011, 25-48. VDI-Gesellschaft Kunststofftechnik, VDI Verlag GmbH, Düsseldorf.
  • Seidel, R., Thielen, M., Schmitt, C., Bührig-Polaczek, A., Fleck, C. & Speck, T. (2010): Fruit walls and nut shells as an inspiration for the design of bio-inspired impact resistant hierarchically structured materials. In: Brebbia, C.A. & Carpi, A. (eds.), Design and Nature V, 421-430. WIT Press, Southampton.
  • Speck,T., Speck, O., Masselter, M. & Seidel, R. (2009): Verpacken, Auspacken und Schützen nach dem Vorbild der Natur: Biologische Verpackungen und Behälter als Ideengeber für bionische Entwicklungen. In: Blasformen 2009, 1-19. VDI-Gesellschaft Kunststofftechnik, VDI Verlag GmbH, Düsseldorf.
  • Speck, T. (2010): Innovative bionische Materialien: Leichtbau, Dämpfung, Haftung und Selbstadaption nach dem Vorbild der Natur. Proceedings 6th Materialica Congress: Composites in Automotive and Aerospace 2010: 22 S., München, Munich Expo. (auf CD erschienen)
  • Seidel, R., Bührig-Polaczek, A., Fleck, C. & Speck, T. (2009): Impact resistance of hierarchically structured fruit walls and nut shells in view of biomimetic applications. In: B. Thibaut (ed.), Proceedings of the 6th Plant Biomechanics Conference, French Guyana, France: 406 – 411. ECOFOG, Cayenne. (auf CD erschienen)
  • Loprang, R.R., Fleck, C.: Geometrical and Loading Influence on Compression Strength of Macadamia Nut. Proceedings World Congress of Engineering Vol. II, 2010, London, UK, 30 June - 2 July, 2010; Eds. Editors: S. I. Ao, L. Gelman, D. WL Hukins, A. Hunter, A. M. Korsunsky, International Association of Engineers, Newswood Limited (2010). 1586-1591 (ISBN 978-988-18210-7-2)

 

Conference Contributions

  • Fleck, C.: Bioinspirierte Materialforschung: was können wir von Zähnen und Macadamianüssen lernen? 32. Werkstoff seminar des IWK I in Adelboden/ Schweiz, (12’03’-19’03’2011) [invited talk one part of which will present results from the SPP 1420 project]
  • Loprang, R.R., Schüler, P., Meinel, D., Zaslansky, P., Fleck, C.: Microstructural and Mechanical Investigation of Macadamia Nutshells on Diff erent Hierarchical Levels. TMS 2011 Annual Meeting and Exhibition, San Diego, USA, (27’02’-03’03’2011).
  • Speck, T.: Innovative bionische Materialien: Leichtbau, Dämpfung, Haft ung und Selbstadaption nach dem Vorbild der Natur. 6th Materialica Congress: Composites in Automotive and Aerospace, Munich Expo, München Germany (20’10’- 21’10’2010). [Invited overview talk in which results from the SPP 1420 project were presented]
  • Fischer, S.F., Loprang, R.R., Fleck, C., Bührig- Polaczek, A.: Pummelo-inspired Low Weight Structures with Excellent Damping Properties. Materials Science and Engineering (MSE 2010), Darmstadt, (24’08’-26’08’2010)
  • Thielen, M., Schmitt, C., Speck, T. & Seidel, R.: Biomechanics and functional morphology of the pummelo (Citrus maxima) and impact performance of its peel. Annual Conference of the Society for Experimental Biology, Prague. (30’06’-03’07’2010)
  • Seidel, R., Thielen, M., Schmitt, C., Bührig-Polaczek, A., Fleck, C. & Speck, T.: Fruit walls and nut shells as an inspiration for the design of bioinspired impact resistant hierarchically structured materials. 5th International Conference on Comparing Design in Nature with Science and Engineering: “Design and Nature 2010”, Pisa. (28’06’- 30’06’2010)
  • Fischer, S.F., Bührig-Polaczek, A.: Bio-inspired Precision-Cast Structural Elements: Development, Evaluation and Production. European cooperation in science and technology (COST) Strategic Workshop “Principles and development of bio-inspired materials”, BOKU Vienna. (13’04’-15’04’2010)
  • Seidel, R., Thielen, M., Schmitt, C., Bührig-Polaczek, A., Fleck, C. & Speck, T: Functional Morphology and Biomechanics of Fruit Walls and Nut Shells: Concept Generators for Innovative Biomechanic/ Biomimetic Materials. Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, Special Symposium: Mechanics without muscle: biomechanical inspiration from the plant world, Seattle, USA. (03’01’-07’01’2010).
  • Seidel, R., Bührig-Polaczek, A., Fleck, C. & Speck, T.: Impact resistance of hierarchically structured fruit walls and nut shells in view of biomimetic applications. 6th Plant Biomechanics Conference, Cayenne, French Guyana, France. (16’11’- 21’11’2009)
  • Speck, T.: Verpacken, Auspacken und Schützen nach dem Vorbild der Natur: Biologische Verpackungen als bionische Ideengeber für die Technik. VDI Kunststofft echnik Fachtagung Baden-Baden. (12’05’2009) [Invited overview talk in which results from the SPP 1420 project were presented]
  • Loprang, R.R., Fleck, C.: Geometrical and Loading Infl uence on Compression Strength of Macadamia Nut. World Congress of Engineering WCE 2010, London, UK. (30’06’-02’07’2010).
  • Fleck, C., Zaslansky, P.: Microstructural Visualization of Crack Propagation Behaviour in Macadamia Nutshell by Phase-Enhanced μ-CT Measurements. 2nd HZB-Joint User’s Meeting of BESSY II and BER II, Berlin (09’12’-10’12’2010)
  • Thielen, M., Schmitt, C., Speck, T. & Seidel, R.: The peel of Citrus maxima a role model for hierarchically structured biomimetics foams. European cooperation in science and technology (COST) Strategic Workshop “Principles and development of bio-inspired materials”, BOKU Wien. (13’04’- 15’04’2010)
  • Thielen, M., Schmitt, C., Speck, T., Seidel, R.: The Pericarp of Citrus maxima as a Role Model for Impact Protection Devices. Materials Science and Engineering (MSE 2010), Darmstadt (24’08’- 26’08’2010).

 

Prizes & Media Coverage

  • Sebastian Fischer: Prize for one of the three best presentations at the European cooperation in science and technology (COST) Strategic Workshop “Principles and development of bio-inspired materials”, BOKU Vienna. (13’04’-15’04’2010) for his presentation “Bio-inspired Precision-Cast Structural Elements: Development, Evaluation and Production”
  • SAT 1 - Planetopia „Bio-inspired packaging and biomimetic damping materials” (23.01.2011)
  • Aachener Nachrichten and Aachener Zeitung „Wenn die Technik von der Natur lernt“ (23‘01‘2010)
  • SWR 3-Fernsehen: Abendschau “Impaktdämpfende Strukturen & Technischer Pflanzenhalm“ (11‘12‘2009)
  • Badische Zeitung - Wissen, S. VII “Harte Nüsse zu knacken: Bioniker beobachten die Natur“ (17‘10‘2009)
  • SWR 4-Radio „Bionik in Freiburg - Interview mit T. Speck“ (07‘09‘2009)
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