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Hierarchically structured porous ceramics and composites from nanocasting of plant cell walls

Member of the SPP1420 from 2009 till 2013


The overall goals of this project are the conversion of the entire hierarchical structure of plant tissues into inorganic materials on all hierarchical levels and to explore the newly generated multifunctional properties. During the first funding period, a complete conversion of the hierarchical structure of coniferous wood into silica monoliths with chiral nanoporosity was achieved and comprehensively described. The processing involved delignification, chemical functionalization, the infiltration and condensation of tailored precursor solutions, and finally calcination. Detailed nanostructure characterization was carried out using advanced small angle X-ray scattering. In-situ conversion studies with synchrotron radiation and mechanical testing experiments are currently still in progress. In the second funding period, we will explore the functional properties of these materials based on their unique hierarchical structure with respect to fluid adsorption and -separation capabilities, and we will also investigate their potential use as actuators. The expertise of the new partner at TU München allows to extend the target materials towards alkaline earth metal carbonate systems for thermal- and sound insulation applications. Promising new biological templates will also be explored in cooperation with other SPP groups. One of the requirements for the project is the leading expertise in nanostructure characterization available at MU Leoben in particular with respect to in-situ small angle X-ray scattering and fluid adsorption studies on complex nanoporous materials.




  • P19. Burgert I, Cabane E, Zollfrank C, Berglund L (2015)
    Bio-inspired functional wood-based materials – hybrids and replicates
    (Full Critical review).

    International Materials Reviews, accepted
  • P18. Fritz-Popovski G (2015)
    Interpretation of two-dimensional real-space functions obtained from small-angle scattering data of oriented microstructures
    Journal of Applied Crystallography 48, 44-51.
  • P17. Fritz-Popovski G, Morak R, Schöberl T, Van Opdenbosch D, Zollfrank C, Paris O (2014)
    Pore characteristics and mechanical properties of silica templated by wood.
    Bioinspired, Biomimetic and Nanobiomaterials, 3, 160-168
  • P16. Zollfrank C (2014)
    Herstellung anorganischer Struktur- und Funktionsmaterialien - Biogene Polymere als Template.
    Chemie in unserer Zeit, 48, 296-304
  • P15. Zollfrank C, Scheibel T, Seitz H, Travitzky N (2014)
    Bioinspired Materials Engineering
    Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry
  • P14. Van Opdenbosch D, Zollfrank C (2014)
    Cellulose-based biotemplated silica structuring
    Advanced Engineering Materials, 16, 699-712
  • P13. Zollfrank C (2014)
    Bioinspired Materials Surfaces – Science or Engineering?
    Scripta Materialia, 74, 3–8
  • P12. Paris O, Fritz-Popovski G, Van Opdenbosch D, Zollfrank C (2013)
    Recent advances on the nanoscale replication of biological tissues.
    Advanced Functional Materials, 23, 4408-4422
  • P11. Fritz-Popovski G (2013)
    Two-dimensional indirect Fourier transformation for evaluation of small-angle scattering data of oriented samples.
    Journal of Applied Crystallography 46, 1447-1454
  • P10. Van Opdenbosch D, Dörrstein J, Klaithong S, Kornprobst T, Plank J, Hietala S,
    Zollfrank C (2013)
    Chemistry and water-repelling properties of phenyl-incorporating wood composites.
    Holzforschung, 67, 931–940
  • P9. Klaithong S, Van Opdenbosch D, Zollfrank C, Plank J (2013)
    Preparation of CaCO3 and CaO replica retaining the hierarchical and mesoporous structure of spruce wood.
    Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, B: A Journal of Chemical Sciences, 68, 533-538
  • P8. Van Opdenbosch D, Dörrstein J, Zollfrank C (2013)
    Künstliche Versteinerung von Holz.
    GIT Laborfachzeitschrift, 57/2, 92-94
  • P7. Fritz-Popovski G, Van Opdenbosch D, Zollfrank C, Aichmayer B, Paris O (2013)
    Development of the fibrillar and microfibrillar structure during biomimetic mineralization of wood.
    Advanced Functional Materials, 23, 1265-1272
  • P6. Van Opdenbosch D, Johannes M, Wu X, Fabritius H, Zollfrank C (2012)
    Fabrication of high-temperature resistant three dimensional photonic crystals with tunable photonic properties by biotemplating.
    Photonics and Nanostructures – Fundamentals and Applications, 10, 516-522
  • P5.Van Opdenbosch D, Thielen M, Seidel R, Fritz-Popovski G, Fey T, Paris O, Speck T, Zollfrank C (2012)
    The pomelo peel and derived nanoreplica silica gradient foams.
    Bioinspired, Biomimetic and Nanobiomaterials, 1, 117-200
  • P4. Schenk AS, Zlotnikov I, Pokroy B, Gierlinger N, Masic A, Zaslansky P, Fitch AN, Paris O, Metzger TH, Cölfen H, Fratzl P, Aichmayer B (2012)
    Hierarchical Calcite Crystals with Occlusions of a Simple Polyelectrolyte Mimic Complex Biomineral Structures.
    Advanced Functional Materials 22, 4668-4676
  • P3. Zollfrank C, Cromme P, Rauch MW, Scheel H, Kostova MH, Gutbrod K, Gruber S, Van Opdenbosch D (2012)
    Biotemplating of inorganic functional materials from polysaccharides.
    Bioinspired, Biomimetic and Nanobiomaterials, 1, 13-25
  • P2. Paris O, Aichmayer B, Al-Sawalmih A, Li C, Siegel S, Fratzl P(2011)
    Mapping local structure and composition in biological materials by means of microbeam X-ray diffraction.
    Advanced Engineering Materials 13, 784-792
  • P1. Van Opdenbosch D, Fritz-Popovski G, Paris O, Zollfrank C (2011)
    Silica replication of the hierarchical structure of wood with nanometer precision.
    Journal of Materials Research, 26, 1193-1202

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