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Hierarchical Architecture of Sponge Spicules: Co-action of Biocatalytic and Structure-Directing Proteins as Model for Bioinspired Approaches

Member of the SPP1420 from 2009 till 2015

Abstract

The hierarchically structured biosilica skeleton of the siliceous sponges, the demosponges and hexactinellid glass sponges, with its exceptional opto-mechanical properties has turned out an excellent model for biomimetic approaches. These sponges have the unique ability to synthesize their skeletal elements (spicules) by an enzyme-catalyzed mechanism. In the first funding period much progress has been achieved towards the understanding and exploitation of the complex inorganic-organic architecture of the spicules and the principle enzymes (silicateins) involved in their formation. This project, which requires a close collaboration between groups from inorganic chemistry and molecular biology, is based on the discovery of two new proteins, silintaphin-1 a silicatein interactor, and DUF a scaffolding protein, which are expected to provide profound new insights in the mechanism of spiculogenesis and to enable novel bio-inspired, approaches in nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. The structural and functional significance of silintaphin-1 and DUF proteins and their concerted action with silicatein will be investigated. The self-assembly, structure-directing and biocatalytic capabilities of various combinations of silicatein, silintaphin-1, and DUF along with nanoparticles of diverse materials will be exploited for the generation of biomimetic nanostructured materials with new property combinations.

 

Publications

Peer-reviewed

[1] Wolf, S.E., Schloßmacher, U., Pietuch, A., Mathiasch, B., Schröder, H.C., Müller, W.E.G. and Tremel, W.: Formation of silicones mediated by the sponge enzyme silicatein-α. Dalton Trans. 39, 9245-9249 (2010).

[2] Tahir, M.N., Natalio, F., Berger, R., Balz, M., Theato, P., Schröder, H.C., Müller, W.E.G. and Tremel, W.: Growth of fibrous aggregates of silica nanoparticles: Fibre growth by mimicking the biogenic silica patterning processes. Soft Matter 5, 3657-3662 (2009).

[3] Natalio, F., Mugnaioli, E., Wiens, M., Wang, X., Schröder, H.C., Tahir, M.N., Tremel, W., Kolb, U. and Müller, W.E.G.: Silicatein-mediated incorporation of titanium into spicules from the demosponge Suberites domuncula. Cell Tissue Res. 339, 429-436 (2010).

[4] Wiens, M., Wang, X., Natalio, F., Schröder, H.C., Schloßmacher, U., Wang, S., Korzhev, M., Geurtsen, W. and Müller, W.E.G.: Bioinspired fabrication of bio-silica-based bone-substitution materials. Adv. Eng. Biomater. 12, B438–B450 (2010).

[5] Müller, W.E.G., Wang, X., Sinha, B., Wiens, M., Schröder, H.C. and Jochum, K.P.: NanoSIMS: Insights into the organization of the proteinaceous scaffold within hexactinellid sponge spicules. ChemBioChem 11, 1077-1082 (2010).

[6] Wang, X., Wiens, M., Schröder, H.C., Hu, S., Mugnaioli, E., Kolb, U., Tremel, W., Pisignano, D. and Müller, W.E.G.: Morphology of sponge spicules: silicatein a structural protein for bio-silica formation. Adv. Eng. Biomater. Adv. Eng. Mater. 12, B422-B437 (2010).

[7] Gong, N., Wiens, M., Schröder, H.C., Mugnaioli, E., Kolb, U. and Müller, W.E.G.: Biosilicification of loricate choanoflagellates: Organic composition of the nanotubular siliceous costal strips of Stephanoeca diplocostata. J. Exp. Biol. 213, 3575-3585 (2010).

[8] Natoli, A., Wiens, M., Schröder, H.C., Stifanic, M., Batel, R., Soldati, A.L., Jacob, D.E. and Müller, W.E.G.: Bio-vaterite formation by glycoproteins from freshwater pearls. Micron 41, 273-394 (2010).

[9] Wiens, M., Wang, X., Schröder, H.C., Kolb, U., Schloßmacher, U., Ushijima, H. and Müller, W.E.G.: The role of biosilica in the osteoprotegerin/RANKL ratio in human osteoblast-like cells. Biomaterials 31, 7716-7725 (2010).

[10] Wiens, M., Wang, X., Schloßmacher, U., Lieberwirth, I., Glasser, G., Ushijima, H., Schröder, H.C. and Müller, W.E.G.: Osteogenic potential of biosilica on human osteoblast-like (SaOS-2) cells. Calcif. Tissue Int. 87, 513-524 (2010).

[11] Schröder, H.C., Wiens, M., Schloßmacher, U., Brandt, D. and Müller, W.E.G.: Silicatein-mediated polycondensation of orthosilicic acid: Modeling of catalytic mechanism involving ring formation. Silicon 4, 33-38 (2012).

[12] André, R., Tahir, M.N., Link, T., Jochum, F.D., Kolb, U., Theato, P., Berger, R., Wiens, M., Schröder, H.C., Müller, W.E.G., Tremel, W.: Growth of SiO2 and ZrO2 particles on TiO2 nanowires controlled by surface-bound silicatein and silintaphin-1. Chemical mimicry: Hierarchical 1D TiO2@ZrO2 core-shell structures reminiscent of sponge spicules by the synergistic effect of silicatein-α and silintaphin-1. Langmuir 27, 5464-5471 (2011).

[13] Wiens, M., Schröder, H.C., Wang, X.H., Link, T., Steindorf, D., Müller, W.E.G.: Isolation of the silicatein-α interactor silintaphin-2 by a novel solid-phase pull-down assay. Biochemistry 50, 1981-1990 (2011).

[14] Schloßmacher, U., Wiens, M., Schröder, H.C., Wang, X.H., Jochum, K.P., Müller, W.E.G.: Silintaphin-1: Interaction with silicatein during structure-guiding biosilica formation. FEBS J. 278, 1145-1155 (2011).

[15] Müller, W.E.G., Wang, X.H., Wiens, M., Schloßmacher, U., Jochum, K.P., Schröder H.C.: Hardening of bio-silica in sponge spicules involves an aging process after its enzymatic polycondensation: Evidence for an aquaporin-mediated water absorption. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1810, 713-726 (2011).

[16] Wang, X.H., Wiens, M., Schröder, H.C., Schloßmacher, U., Pisignano, D., Jochum, K.P., Müller, W.E.G.: Evagination of cells controls bio-silica formation and maturation during spicule formation in sponges. PLoS ONE 6, e20523 (2011).

[17] Wang, X.H., Wiens, M., Schröder, H.C., Jochum, K.P., Schloßmacher, U., Götz, H., Duschner, H., Müller, W.E.G.: Circumferential spicule growth by pericellular silica deposition in the hexactinellid sponge Monorhaphis chuni. J. Exp. Biol. 214, 2047-2056 (2011).

[18] Schröder, H.C., Wiens, M., Wang, X., Schloßmacher, U., Müller, W.E.G.: Biosilica-based strategies for treatment of osteoporosis and other bone diseases. Prog. Mol. Subcell. Biol. 52, 283-312 (2011).

[19] Wang, X.H., Schröder, H.C., Brandt, D., Wiens, M., Lieberwirth, I., Glasser, G., Schloßmacher, U., Wang, S., Müller W.E.G.: Sponge bio-silica formation involves syneresis following polycondensation in vivo. ChemBioChem 12, 2316-2324 (2011).

[20] Müller, W.E.G., Binder, M., von Lintig, J., Guo, Y.-W., Wang, X.H., Kaandorp, J.A., Wiens, M., Schröder, H.C.: Interaction of the retinoic acid signaling pathway with spicule formation in the marine sponge Suberites domuncula through activation of bone morphogenetic protein-1. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1810, 1178-1194 (2011).

[21] André, R., Tahir, M.N., Schröder, H. C., Müller, W.E.G., Tremel, W.: Enzymatic synthesis and surface deposition of tin dioxide using silicatein-α. Chem. Mater. 23, 5358–5365 (2011).

[22] Wang, X.H., Schloßmacher, U., Wiens, M., Batel, R., Schröder, H.C., Müller W.E.G.: Silicateins, silicatein interactors, and cellular interplay in sponge skeletogenesis: Formation of the glass fiber-like spicules. FEBS J. 279, 1721-1736 (2012).

[23] Wang, X.H., Schröder, H.C., Wiens, M., Ushijima, H., Müller W.E.G.: Bio-silica and bio-polyphosphate: applications in biomedicine (bone formation). Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 23, 570-578 (2012).

[24] Schröder, H.C., Wang, X.H., Wiens, M., Diehl-Seifert, B., Kropf, K., Schloßmacher, U., Müller W.E.G.: Silicate modulates the cross-talk between osteoblasts (SaOS-2) and osteoclasts (RAW 264.7 cells): inhibition of osteoclast growth and differentiation. J. Cell. Biochem. 113, 3197-3206 (2012).

[25] Schröder, H.C., Wang, X.H., Manfrin, A., Yu, S.H., Grebenjuk, V.A., Korzhev, M., Wiens, M., Schloßmacher, U., Müller, W.E.G.: Silicatein: acquisition of structure-guiding and structure-forming properties during maturation from the pro-silicatein to the silicatein form. J. Biol. Chem. 287, 22196-22205 (2012).

[26] Müller, W.E.G., Wang, X.H., Grebenjuk, V.A., Korzhev, M., Wiens, M., Schloßmacher, U., Schröder H.C.: Nocturnin in the demosponge Suberites domuncula: a potential circadian clock protein controlling glycogenin synthesis in sponges. Biochem. J. 448, 233–242 (2012).

[27] Wang, X.H., Schröder, H.C., Wang, K., Kaandorp, J.A., Müller W.E.G.: Genetic, biological and structural hierarchies during sponge spicule formation: From soft sol-gels to solid 3D silica composite structures. Soft Matter 8, 9501-9518 (2012).

[28] Müller, W.E.G., Mugnaioli, E., Schröder, H.C., Schloßmacher, U., Giovine, M., Kolb, U., Wang, X.H.: Hierarchical composition of the axial filament from spicules of the siliceous sponge Suberites domuncula: From biosilica-synthesizing nanofibrils to structure- and morphology-guiding triangular stems. Cell Tissue Res. 351, 49-58 (2013).

[29] Wang, X.H., Schloßmacher, U., Schröder, H.C., Müller W.E.G.: Biologically-induced transition of bio-silica sol to mesoscopic gelatinous flocs: a biomimetic approach to a controlled fabrication of bio-silica structures. Soft Matter 9, 654-664 (2013).

[30] Müller, W.E.G., Schröder, H.C., Muth, S., Gietzen, S., Korzhev, M., Grebenjuk, V., Wiens, M., Schloßmacher, U., Wang X.H.: The silicatein-propeptide acts as inhibitor/modulator of self-organization during spicule axial filament formation. FEBS J. 280, 1693-1708 (2013).

[31] Wang, X.H., Schröder, H.C., Schloßmacher, U., Jiang, L., Korzhev, M. Müller, W.E.G.: Biosilica aging: From enzyme-driven gelation via syneresis to chemical/biochemical hardening. Biochim.Biophys. Acta 1830, 3437-3446 (2013).

[32] Müller, W.E.G., Schröder, H.C., Burghard, Z., Pisignano, D., Wang X.H.: Silicateins: a paradigm shift in bioinorganic chemistry. Enzymatic synthesis of inorganic polymeric silica. Chem. Eur. J. 19, 5790-5804 (2013).

[33] Müller, W.E.G., Wang, X.H., Jochum, K., Schröder, H.C.: Self-healing, an intrinsic property of biomineralization processes. IUBMB Life 65, 382-396 (2013).

[34] Tahir, M.N., Ali, M., Andre, R., Müller, W.E.G., Schröder, H.C., Tremel, W., Ensinger, W.: Silicatein conjugation inside nanoconfined geometries through immobilized NTA–Ni(II) chelates. ChemComm 49, 2210-2212 (2013).

[35] Müller, W.E.G., Schlossmacher, U., Schröder, H.C., Lieberwirth, I., Glasser, G., Korzhev, M., Neufurth, M., Wang, X.H.: Enzyme-accelerated and structure-guided crystallization of calcium carbonate: Role of the carbonic anhydrase in the homologous system. Acta Biomater. 10, 450-462 (2014).

[36] Müller, W.E.G., Schröder, H.C., Schlossmacher, U., Neufurth, M., Geurtsen, W., Korzhev, M., Wang, X.H.: The enzyme carbonic anhydrase as an integral component of biogenic Ca-carbonate formation in sponge spicules. FEBS Open Bio 3, 357-362 (2013).

[37] Schröder, H.C., Wang, X.H., Schloßmacher, U., Wiens, M., Müller, W.E.G.: Biogenic inorganic polysilicates (bio-silica): formation and biomedical applications. In: Biomedical inorganic polymers: Bioactivity and applications of natural and synthetic polymeric inorganic molecules (W.E.G. Müller, X.H. Wang and H.C. Schröder, eds.), Springer-Press, Berlin; Prog. Mol. Subcell. Biol. 54, 197-234 (2013).

[38] Müller, W.E.G., Neufurth, M., Schloßmacher, U., Schröder, H.C., Pisignano, D., Wang, X.H.: The sponge silicatein-interacting protein silintaphin-2 blocks calcite formation of calcareous sponge spicules at the vaterite stage. RSC Adv. 4, 2577-2585 (2014).

[39] Wang, X.H., Schröder, H.C., Müller, W.E.G.: Enzyme-based biosilica and biocalcite: biomaterials for the future in regenerative medicine. Trends Biotechnol. 32, 441-447 (2014).

[40] Wang, X.H., Schröder, H.C., Müller, W.E.G.: Biocalcite, a multifunctional inorganic polymer: Building block for calcareous sponge spicules and bioseed for the synthesis of calcium phosphate-based bone. Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 5, 610-621 (2014).

[41] Müller, W.E.G., Link, T., Schröder, H.C., Korzhev, M., Neufurth, M., Brandt, D., Wang, X.H.: Dissection of the structure-forming from the structure-guiding activity of silicatein: a biomimetic molecular approach to print optical fibers. J. Mater. Chem. B 2, 5368-5377 (2014).

[42] Neufurth, M., Wang, X.H., Schröder, H.C., Feng, Q.L., Diehl-Seifert, B., Ziebart, T., Steffen, R., Wang, S.F., Müller, W.E.G.: Engineering a morphogenetically active hydrogel for bioprinting of bioartificial tissue derived from human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. Biomaterials 35, 8810-8819 (2014).

[43] Wang, S.F., Wang, X.H., Draenert, F.G., Albert, O., Schröder, H.C., Mailänder, V., Mitov, G., Müller, W.E.G.: Bioactive and biodegradable silica biomaterial for bone regeneration. Bone 67C, 292-304 (2014).

[44] Wang, X.H., Tolba, E., Schröder, H.C., Neufurth, M., Feng, Q.L., Diehl-Seifert, B., Müller, W.E.G.: Effect of bioglass on growth and biomineralization of SaOS-2 in hydrogel after 3D cell bioprinting. PLoS ONE 9, e112497 (2014).

[45] Müller, W.E.G., Albert, O., Schröder, H.C., Wang X.H.: Bio-inorganic nanomaterials for biomedical applications (bio-silica and polyphosphate). In Handbook of Nanomaterials Properties (Bhushan, B., Luo, S., Schricker, D., Sigmund, W., Zauscher S., eds.), Springer Press Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 389-408 (2014).

[46] Müller, W.E.G., Link, T., Li, Q., Schröder, H.C., Batel, R., Blažina, M., Grebenjuk, V.A., Wang X.H.: A novel TiO2-assisted magnetic nanoparticle separator for treatment and inactivation of bacterial contaminants in aquatic systems. RSC Adv. 4, 48267-48275 (2014).

[47] Wang, X.H., Schröder, H.C., Müller, W.E.G.: Enzymatically Synthesized Biosilica. In: Springer Handbook of Marine Biotechnology (Kim, S.K., Ed.), pp. 1265- 1277 (2015).

[48] Wang, X.H., Schröder, H.C., Müller, W.E.G.: Properties and applications of biosilica enzymatically synthesized by aquatic/marine sponges. In Functional Marine Biomaterials: Properties and Applications (Kim, S.K., Ed.). Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomaterials: Number 100, Elesevier, Amsterdam, pp. 33-50 (2015).

 

Conference contributions

[1] Schröder, H.C., Wiens, M., Natalio, F. and Müller, W.E.G.: Marine nanobiotechnology: Enzymes/proteins from sponges acting at the interface of inorganic chemistry and biology. 6th European Conference on Marine Natural Products, 19-23 July 2009, Porto, Portugal, Abstract book, Abstract No. OC 14, p. 59 (2009).

[2] Schröder, H.C.: Biosilica – a new biomaterial with strong economic impact. Conference 2009 of the European Society of Marine Biotechnology (ESMB) on Biotechnological Exploitation of Marine Resources, Concarneau, France, 1-3 September 2009. Special issue Marine Biotechnology (Ed. Y. Le Gal and A. Van Wormhoudt), J. Sci. Hal. Aquat. 2, 70 (2010).

[3] Natalio, F., Wiens, M., Schröder, H.C., Wang, X.H. and Müller, W.E.G.: Biofabrication of inorganic-organic composites and new biomaterials using sponge spicules as blueprints. 6th European Conference on Marine Natural Products, 19-23 July 2009, Porto, Portugal, Abstract book, Abstract No. PC 70, p. 141 (2009).

[4] Schröder, H.C.: Sponge biosilica: novel applications of enzymes and proteins involved in biosilica formation in nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. 2009 Shanghai International Conference on Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Medicine, Shanghai, China, October16-18, 2009. Abstract book, p. 34-35 (2009).

[5] Schröder, H.C., Wang, X.H., Wiens, M. and Müller, W.E.G.: Sponge biosilica nanobiotechnology: source of novel biomaterials. 9th International Marine Biotechnology Conference (IMBC2010), Qingdao, China. 8th -12th October 2010. Abstract book p. 495, abstract no. J0037 (2010).

[6] André, R., Tahir, M.N., Tremel, W., Müller, W.E.G. and Schröder, H.C.: Biomineralization as a tool for assembly of hierarchical structures: silicatein-silintaphin interaction. 3rd International NanoBio Conference 2010, ETH Zürich, Switzerland, August 24-27 2010, Cells & Materials 20, Suppl. 3, 7 (2010).

[7] Schloßmacher, U., Natalio, F., Schröder, H.C., Tremel, W. and Müller, W.E.G.: Hierarchical architecture of sponge spicules: characterization, formation, functionality, and model for novel biomimetic materials. Winter School, DFG Priority Programme 1420: "Biomimetic Materials Research: Functionality by Hierarchical Structuring of Materials", 23-26 March 2010.

[8] Schröder, H.C.: Biosilica and osteoporosis. 3. BiomaTiCS-Symposium, Universitätsmedizin Mainz, 4. Dezember 2010.

[9] Schröder, H.C.: Marine Sponges: Innovative materials for medicine and nanotechnology. Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China, 18th April 2011.

[10] Schröder, H.C.: Sponge biosilica: a new material for nanotechnology and nanomedicine. Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China, 21st April 2011.

[11] Müller, W.E.G., Wiens, M., Schloßmacher, U., Wang, X., Schröder H.C.: Structure-guided mechanism of silica polycondensation reaction during enzymatic sponge spicule formation. Metal Ions Biol. Med. 11, 262-263 (2011). Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Metal Ions in Biology and Medicine, Satellite Workshop: 4th Workshop on the Aqueous Chemistry and Biochemistry of Silicon, 20-23rd June 2011, Homerton College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Abstract no. OS13 (2011).

[12] Schröder, H.C., Wiens, M., Wang, X., Müller W.E.G.: Biosilica: effect on hydroxyapatite formation and osteoprotegerin/RANKL ratio in SaOS-2 cells. Metal Ions Biol. Med. 11, 272-273 (2011). Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Metal Ions in Biology and Medicine, Satellite Workshop: 4th Workshop on the Aqueous Chemistry and Biochemistry of Silicon, 20-23rd June 2011, Homerton College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Abstract no. OS21 (2011).

[13] Schröder, H.C.: Inorganic polyphosphate and biosilica, two biomedical inorganic polymers: Effect on bone formation. Symposium on “Marine Nanobiotechnology” in the frame of the Friendship Award to Prof. Dr. Werner E. G. Müller, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing, China, 26th September 2011.

[14] Schröder, H.C.: Sponge biosilica and biomedical applications. Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China, 29th September 2011.

[15] Schröder, H.C.: Biosilica – a success story in marine molecular biotechnology. The NatPharma Project: Natural Products for Drug Discovery - Results and Perspectives. European Parliament, Altiero Spinelli Building, Brussels, 10th November 2011.

[16] Schröder, H.C., Wang, X., Wiens, M., Müller W.E.G.: Inorganic polyphosphate and biosilica, two biomedical inorganic polymers: Effect on bone formation. Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Shaanxi Institute for Materials Engineering, Advanced Materials Research Center, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China, 23. November 2011.

[17] Schröder, H.C.: Polyphosphate and osteoblast-osteoclast cross-talk. Centre  de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France, 24 February 2012.

[18] Schröder, H.C., Schloßmacher, U., Wang, X.H., Wiens, M., Tremel, W., Müller, W.E.G.: Silicatein and silicatein interactors: structure-guided mechanism of silica polycondensation reaction. Winter School, DFG Priority Programme 1420: "Biomimetic Materials Research: Functionality by Hierarchical Structuring of Materials", Potsdam, Germany, March 19-20, 2012.

[19] Schröder, H.C., Schloßmacher, U., Wiens, M., Wang, X., Müller, W.E.G.: Protein-directed assembly of 3D biosilica structures: silicatein interactors and cellular involvement. DGM International School and Conference on Biological Materials Science („Bio-inspired Materials“), Potsdam, Germany, 20.-23. März 2012.

[20] Müller, W.E.G., Wang, X.H., Schröder, H.C.: Molecular Marine Biotechnology: From genes to bioactive products. 3rd Marine Board Forum (“New Technologies for a Blue Future”), Royal Flemish Academy for Sciences and the Arts, Brussels, 18th April 2012. Book of Abstracts (ed. by the Marine Board Secretariat) (2012).

[21] Schröder, H.C., Wang, X.H., Wiens, M., Müller W.E.G.: Polymeric inorganic biomaterials: Anti-osteoporotic potential of biosilica and polyP via modulation of RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway. 1st Annual World Congress of Advanced Materials (WCAM-2012), June 6-8, 2012, Beijing, China, Abstract book p. 265 (2012).

[22] Schröder, H.C.: Silicatein interactors and structure-guided biosilica formation. Marine Invertebrate Cell Culture Symposium 2012, Marine Biology Station-MNHN, Concarneau, France, August 30-31, 2012. Book of abstracts, p. 21 (2012).

[23] Schröder, H.C.: Silicate modulates the cross-talk between osteoblasts (SaOS-2) and osteoclasts (RAW 264.7 cells). Workshop “Biocompatible coatings and their applications”. University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany, 13.-14.09.2012.

[24] Schröder, H.C., Wang, X.H., Müller, W.E.G.: Biosilica-based strategies for treatment of osteoporosis and other bone diseases. 15th International Biotechnology Symposium & Exhibition (IBS 2012), September 16-21, 2012, Daegu, South Korea, Abstract book (2012).

[25] Schröder, H.C., Wang, X.H., Wiens, M., Müller W.E.G.: Polymeric inorganic biomaterials: Modulation of RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway by bio-silica and polyP. MSE 2012 – Materials Science and Engineering, 25.- 27.9.2012, Darmstadt, Germany, Abstract (2012).

[26] Schröder, H.C., Wang, X.H., Müller, W.E.G.: Bio-silica glass formation in sponges: Towards new concepts in nanotechnology and biomedicine. International Conference of Applied Nanotechnology, Saxion University, 31st January 2013, Enschede, The Netherlands. Abstract book p. 9 (2013).

[27] Schröder, H.C., Wang, X.H., Müller, W.E.G.: Bio-silica from sponges: Towards new applications in nano-biotechnology and biomedicine. Ninth World Sponge Conference, Fremantle, Australia, 4 - 8th November 2013. Abstracts, pp. 61-62 (2013).

[28] Schröder, H.C., Wang, X.H., Schloßmacher, U., Müller, W.E.G.: Autocatalytic cleavage of silicatein: Implications for the mechanism of self-assembly and silicatein activity. International School and Conference on Biological Materials Science (Bio-inspired Materials), Potsdam, March 18-21 2014, Abstract (2014).

[29] Schröder, H.C., Wang, X.H., Müller, W.E.G.: Bio-silica glass formation by silicatein – functional dissection of a sponge enzyme with multiple applications. 9th European Marine Natural Products Conference, Glasgow, Scotland, 30th August - 2nd September 2015. Abstract book, abstr. no. S6-O4 (2015).

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